For this tour, you will cycle out busy streets of city to the peaceful country roads shadowed by old bamboo, palms and pine trees. Photo stops along the roads or guests can make a video about family temples, green rice fields or live activities of farmers …
Stop at Thanh Toan Tile – Roofed Bridge of Thuy Thanh 16th century Village. Visit Thanh Toan covered bridge, interesting local market and traditional agricultural museum
Visit one fishing family in Tam Giang area to learn lifestyle of local people, children, different kinds of fishing traps, nets, gears …
Boat cruise on Tam Giang Lagoon to daily fishing activities, corral system, stilt houses on the Lagoon … to see how beautiful and peaceful the Lagoon is
cycle tour to Dam Chuon village in Hue


  • Cycling through beautiful countryside road with shadowed bamboo and rice paddy fields, vegetable village
  • Visit Thanh Toan covered bridge, interesting local market and traditional agricultural museum
  • Boat cruise on Tam Giang Lagoon
  • Have seafood lunch in local restaurant in the middle of Lagoon
Thanh Toan bridge in Hue, lovely countryside in Hue, lovely countryside market in HueTour programme:
9:00 see your hotel in Hue and start cycle to the countryside
Stop at Thanh Toan Tile – Roofed Bridge of Thuy Thanh 16th century Village. Our guide will introduce the history of this village and lifestyles of its people there before taking around to see the local market. Guests will be also explained clearly about traditional work and production tools in the village production museum.
After that, continue to Tam Giang by different village roads through the green rice fields and see lovely old tree or flowers
 Thanh Toan bridge in Hue, lovely countryside in Hue, lovely countryside market in Hue
Visit one fishing family in Tam Giang area to learn lifestyle of local people, children, different kinds of fishing traps, nets, gears …
Boat cruise on Tam Giang Lagoon to daily fishing activities, corral system, stilt houses on the Lagoon … to see how beautiful and peaceful the Lagoon is
Have seafood lunch in local restaurant in the middle of Lagoon
You can swim or relax at the restaurant before coming back to the city
End tour


BIKES Price in USD /person ( Minimum: 2 persons)
Trek 4500 / GIANT 59 USD
MOTORBIKE Price in USD /person ( Minimum: 2 persons)
Automatic/ 49 USD

– English speaking guide/ Driver speak English ( no Professional)
– Bicycles option/ motorbike
– Small lunch
– Mineral water (2 bottle /person /day)
– Entrance fees, parking fees and fund for helping the community
– Boat cruise on Tam Giang Lagoon

Not include:
– Personal expense, tips

The romanticization of traditional lifestyles is an insidious form of prejudice, one that leads to assumptions no less false and potentially no less damaging than racial prejudice. There’s an assumption of something pure and right in traditional folkways that is lost when such ways are abandoned for modern/Western ways. It’s little different from the old “noble savage” meme, which we’ve largely rejected in name, but which remains a strong theme in Western culture in the form of romanticizing supposedly more “peaceful” lifestyles that are “more in tune with the natural world,” (in spite of the constant states of warfare that have been observed in many tribal cultures; in spite of smallpox, frequent childbirth deaths, illiteracy, et al, as being quite natural), and uncritically accepting, idealizing, ancient-and/or-Eastern “wisdom” that is often unwise in the sense that it is unsupported by science and often demonstrably untrue and harmful.

Vietnamese Sampan from Hue area (line drawing)

A sampan from the Hue area, probably much like those discussed here. Source: Junk Blue Book*

I acknowledge myself among such offenders – after all,Indigenous Boats is my blog, created and written because of my fascination with and appreciation for the boats and boating-related activities and peoples of non-Western – and especially, preindustrial (or should I say nonindustrial?) – cultures. I certainly can’t shake the notion that there’s something attractive about traditional, preindustrial folkways – in spite of the fact that, when given the chance, most preindustrial people eagerly adopt many, if not most, of the ways and material benefits of Western/industrial culture.

Vietnamese Sampan from Hue area, photo

Hue area sampan (type HUBC-1a in the Junk Blue Book)

So the sampan dwellers of Tam Giang Lagoon, in central coastal Vietnam, are a good object lesson about the relative attractions, to those directly affected by the choice, of a natural, traditional, or “primitive” lifestyle versus a modern, commercially-based one.

A van of Sampans in Tam Giang Lagoon

A van of sampans in Tam Giang Lagoon (DaCosta and Turner)

Tam Giang Lagoon, near the city of Hue, is the largest lagoon in Southeast Asia – about 70 km long, fed by a number of rivers, and with two narrow openings to the South China Sea. Historically, it was home to highly productive fisheries of many species, and as recently as 1985, some 100,000 individuals lived there year-round on about 10,000 sampans, one family per boat. If I have correctly identified in the Junk Blue Book* the type of boat in use there in the early 1960s, these boats were rigged with lugsails, ranged in length from 22 to 46 feet, in beam from 4.3 to 6.5 feet, and typically had a laden draft of just 1.6 feet. Today, almost all are powered by inboard engines.

Sampan dwellers were mobile fishers, relying on hook-and-rod and dip-net gear for a mainly subsistence living, with surplus catch being sold, usually direct to the consumer, in local markets around the lagoon. Groups of thirty to fifty sampans, their families often related, would travel together to fish different areas of the lagoon and gather near one another in floating communities called vans.

This was hardly the idyllic life that it might appear. Although the origins of the sampan dwellers are disputed, it seems clear that they were refugees from other parts of Vietnam, who took to the water because there was no farmland available in the region. DaCosta and Turner* describe them as “marginalized,” and state that “The sampan dwellers tend to have low incomes, are landless, lack accessibility to government services such as health and formal education, and have poor living conditions.” Furthermore, “They are scorned by land-living…society in general, who consider them…poor and uneducated. In turn, the sampan dwellers consider themselves isolated….” The sampan life even had serious spiritual drawbacks, because “Being landless…means, among other things, that families cannot bury their dead in permanent burial grounds, considered essential in Vietnamese society to ensure a successful after-life.” Although I speculate, this philosophical weakness of their lifestyle might have had a negative psychological impact on sampan dwellers continually worried about life after death.

Prior to and during the Second Indochina War (i.e., “the” Vietnam War, to Americans), land-dwellers around the lagoon began staking claims in the lagoon by constructing fixed-gear fishing installations such as fish traps, weirs, and corrals and permanent dip-nets. Although these installations had no legal sanction, they proliferated, excluding the legally- and socially-impotent sampan dwellers from areas of the lagoon. Following the war, these permanent installations expanded rapidly, with aquaculture facilities added to the mix.

Eventually, privately-owned fixed-gear facilities covered such large areas of the lagoon that open fishery areas became severely restricted. The density of aquaculture operations also had negative effects on water quality and on the natural flow of water through the lagoon, further reducing the wild catch (and causing health and productivity problems for aquaculturists as well).

net enclosures and small sampan, Tam Giang Lagoon

The lagoon’s fixed fishing facilities and aquaculture pounds are largely tended with small sampans propelled through the shallow waters with a pole. (Source: Truong Van Tuyen, et al)

After a typhoon in 1985 killed 600 around the lagoon – including many sampan dwellers – the Vietnamese government embarked on a program to resettle sampan dwellers to the land. The goals of the program were not only to reduce their vulnerability to natural disasters, but also to integrate them into the larger society and raise their standard of living. Entirely new villages were established solely for former sampan dwellers. Land was allocated to families, and partial funding provided for the construction of permanent homes.

These policies were far from ideal in their implementation. The land allocated was often marginal for agriculture, and the provision of credit for home construction was often inadequate and subject to political favoritism.

Nonetheless, some 90 percent of sampan dwellers came ashore, enticed by the chance to become landowners. Former sampan dwellers began establishing their own fixed-gear fishing and aquaculture facilities, farming terrestrially, and engaging in a variety of other land-based enterprises, while some of them also maintained their sampans for mobile fishing during the season when their time was not taken up by land-based agriculture. The former sampan dwellers were encouraged to join social and economic organizations and, as landed citizens, attained political and social parity in these groups and in society at large. They played a role, for example, in negotiated efforts to rationalize the location, size, and spacing of fixed-gear fishing and aquaculture installations. These efforts achieved success in improving flushing and water quality in the lagoon and establishing a fairer allocation of sunken lands both for landed citizens and remaining sampan dwellers.

Although DaCosta and Turner found significant disparities among the former sampan dwellers in the success of their adaptation to land-based living, they are, by almost any objective measure, generally better off than previously. They are now integrated into state educational and healthcare systems, are active in the larger economy, and, especially, are accepted into Vietnamese cultural life. In the words of one former sampan dweller:

“In general, I feel my life is much easier since I have been on land. Life on the boat is isolated. Now I have more friends, and my kids can go to school, and it is much easier for me to make a living… I feel that I have stronger ties with the members of the village than on the boat.”

Another former sampan dweller reported that he had, in the authors’ words, more “free time…to spend with his friends and neighbours. This allowed him to build stronger ties with other village members and, in turn, to gain information to aid his livelihood development.” Those stronger ties included the pooling of resources among former sampan dwellers to finance the construction of individually-owned fixed-gear fishing and aquaculture installations — something they might have done previously, had not their isolation discouraged such cooperation.

There’s something sad in the loss of a traditional way of life – but that sadness seems to be mainly for those not living it. It is true that that loss was forced upon the sampan dwellers by external changes – especially by their exclusion from formerly accessible areas of the lagoon by the growth of privately-owned fixed-gear fishing and aquaculture installations. But to ask that the sampan dwellers be “allowed” to retain their traditional lifestyle unchanged by the modern world is essentially to ask that the modern world stop changing – and this is obviously a vain request. In the case of the sampan dwellers, their lot was made easier by humane government policies designed to incorporate them into the larger society rather than to marginalize them further. And that may be the best outcome to hope for for many traditional societies that will, in the future, be placed under pressure by inevitable changes in the modern societies that surround them.


Elsa DaCosta, Sarah Turner, Negotiating changing livelihoods: The sampan dwellers of Tam Giang Lagoon, Viet Nam, Geoforum, 38(1) 190-206 (2007)

Truong Van Turen, Derek Armitage, Melissa Marschke,Livelihoods and co-management in the Tam Giang lagoon, Vietnam, Ocean and Coastal Management, 2010

  1. Levasseur, J.M. Lamperin, H. Le Neel, L. Chambaud,The Sampan Dwellers of the Vi Da District (Hue, 1993). Results of a survey preliminary to humanitarian aid intervention, 1994

Junk Blue Book: A Handbook of Junks of South Vietnam, 1962

Tam Giang Lagoon is located along the beautiful and peaceful villages where is the meeting place of three big rivers, including O Lau, Huong and Bo rivers.

Tam Giang lagoon runs along the coast of Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam, has an area of 22,000 hectares and a length of more than 60 km, including many lagoons joining together such as Tam Giang, Thuy Tu, Cau Hai, Chuon, Sam … They converge the water of almost all the rivers of the province of Thua Thien Hue before going to the sea through the mouths of Thuan An, Tu Hien.

The lagoon of Tam Giang has a depth of 2 – 4m, in some places, of 7m, the immense water surface is an area of important economic activity bringing high income with its sea products. Yearly thousands tons of sea products are brought on here (fish, shrimps and others). In the recent years, the cultivation and raising of sea products, mainly the raising of shrimps and cultivation of “gracilaria” has developed in this zone of lagoons. Today the province is researching on investment for building a bridge through the Tam Giang lagoon in order to have favorable conditions to develop the economy and tourism of this region.

The lagoon is the ideal habitant for many sea species all along the province and provides a livelihood, directly or indirectly to about 300,000 inhabitants of 326 villages in 31 communes around the lagoon. Those people who operate fishing gear in the lagoon are both fishermen and farmers. The local is hard working and friendly. Come to the rustic place, you will have chances to experience the simple real life of countryside and learn the exciting farming, fishing activities of the local people.

floating market in Tam Giang lagoon

Earn living around Tam Giang Lagoon, tam giang eco tour, cuoc song nguoi dan vung dam pha tam giang

Earn living around Tam Giang Lagoon, tam giang eco tour, cuoc song nguoi dan vung dam pha tam giang

tam giang lagoon in Hue, tam giang lagoon, tam giang lagoon guide map

Tam Giang Lagoon cover